Sanitation refers to the safe management and disposal of human excreta. It is important to understand that this involves service delivery, not just the installation of infrastructure; both service providers and users need to act in defined ways.Urban Sanitation: What are the Challenges?
This means that the success of sanitation investments cannot be measured only in terms of physical outputs such as the number of toilets built or kilometers of sewer laid. Instead, the focus of attention should be on outcomes, primarily the use and maintenance of those facilities.
Dealing effectively with human waste may also require action in related areas such as water supply, drainage, and solid waste management. Good coordination between the agencies responsible for these services is, therefore, important.
Broadly speaking, the challenges fall into four categories:
■ Low infrastructure;
■ Service coverage;
■ Low service usage; and
■ Weak institutional arrangements.